Newspaper Research Journal
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Endnote Examples

NRJ follows Chicago Style for endnotes. For your convenience, we have included some sample citations. For more information, or for explanations to citations not listed below, refer to the orange Chicago Manual of Style (14th edition). For legal footnotes, please consult The Blue Book (17th edition).


Leo Bogart, Press and the Public, 2nd ed. (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989), 16.

Book chapter:

James Carey, “The Dark Continent of American Journalism,” in Readings in the News, eds. Richard Manoff and Mike Schudson (New York: Pantheon, 1986), 146-196.

Periodical article:

Erin Willis, Chang Dae Ham and Shelly Rodgers, “Ethnic, Mainstream Papers Differ on Health Reporting,” Newspaper Research Journal 35, no. 4 (fall 2014): 21-39.

[Note that page number does not carry pp. or p prefix. Include volume, and consistently throughout manuscript, issue number and season or month of publication.]

Newspaper Article:

Bruce Horovitz, “Wired on Campus E-Life: From Pizza to Crib Notes to ‘Dear Johns’, Students Get It All Online,” USA Today, August 19, 1999, sect. B, p. 1.

[Note: Add city name to American newspaper if not included. If city is unknown, add state in parentheses after the city. Italicize all]. Ex. Haulton (Maine) Pioneer Times.

Online citation:

Carol Lloyd, “Yellow Journalism: Why Are Reporters, Those Vigilant Guardians of Constitutional Freedom, Cravenly Unzipping Themselves for Drug Testing?”, April 1, 1998, <\> (October 23, 2001).

[Note that the date of access of the Web site is included in the parentheses.]

Magazine Article:

Shawn Tully, "Fortune 500: Profits Bounce Back," Fortune, May 3, 2010, 140.

Master’s thesis:

D.P. Wolfe, “Newspaper Use of Computer Databases and Guidelines for Access: A Case Study: The St. Petersburg Times” (master’s thesis, University of South Florida, 1989).

Ph.D. dissertation:

Brian Lance Massey, “Newspapers and the Local-News Sourcing Effect of Public Journalism” (Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 1997).

Paper presented:

Stephen Lacy, David C. Coulson and Hiromi Cho, “Competition for Household Penetration among U.S. Metropolitan Daily, Non-Metropolitan Daily and Weekly Newspapers outside Metropolitan Areas” (paper presented at the Third International Media Economics Conference, Pamplona, Spain, May 2000).

Kathleen A. Hansen, Mark Neuzil and Jean Ward, “Newsroom Topic Teams: Journalists’ Assessments of Effects on News Routines and Newspaper Quality” (paper presented at AEJMC Chicago, IL, August 1997).

[Write out complete name of conference, if not AEJMC.]

Personal communication:

Margaret Skelton, conversation with author, Oak Park, IL, July 14, 1990.
Tim G. Peterson, interview by author, Long Beach, CA, August 1, 1989.

Shortened or Second Reference:

Bogart, Press and the Public.
Davis, “Ring Around the Metros,” 54.

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